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[mər′kād·ər ‚sāl·iŋ] (navigation) **A method of solving the various problems involving course, distance, difference of latitude, difference of longitude, and departure** by considering them in the relation in which they are plotted on a Mercator chart.

## What is transverse sailing?

: plane sailing in which **a ship follows two or more courses in succession** with the difference in latitude and departure being added algebraically to find a single resultant course and distance.

## What is parallel sailing?

: **spherical sailing in which the course is along a parallel and departure** is the product of cosine latitude times the difference of longitude —opposed to meridian sailing.

**The most common navigation methods are satnav, dead reckoning, and radar navigation.**

- Dead reckoning.
- Pilotage.
- Celestial navigation.
- Inertial navigation.
- Radio navigation.
- Radar navigation.
- Satellite navigation.

## What is the advantage and disadvantages of great circle sailing?

The advantage of a great circle is obvious, the **shorter distance**. The disadvantages, depending on latitude, could be quite a few. Colder weather, stronger winds, higher seas and perhaps even icebergs.

## What is the difference between plane sailing and Mercator sailing?

Plane sailing is not intended for distances of more than a few hundred miles. … Mercator sailing provides a mathematical solution of the plot as made on a Mercator chart. It is similar to plane sailing, but uses **meridional difference** and difference of longitude in place of difference of latitude and departure.

## What is the limit distance to use the plain sailing?

Plane sailing is not intended for distances of **more than a few hundred miles**. Since the track is cutting all meridians at the same angle, Plane Sailing is also one of the methods of Rhumb Line Sailing.

## Why is it called plane sailing?

In the past, in order to determine distance, calculations were made based on the assumption that the earth was flat and not spherical. To make calculations simple, **sailors assumed that the ship was sailing on a flat or a ‘plane surface**‘. The original expression was, in fact, ‘plane sailing’.

## How is plane sailing calculated?

‘Plane’ or ‘Plain’ sailing according to modern as well as early usage involves the arguments, distance, d. lat., departuie and course angle, and in order to solve the problems (a) or (b), d. … These relationships are now known as the plane sailing formulae, namely: **departure = distance x sine course d.** **lat.**

## What are the characteristics of parallel sailing?

Parallel Sailing

Parallel sailing means **sailing along a parallel of latitude** which also means maintaining a true course of east 090 or west 270. The distance sailed would be the departure at that latitude.

## What are the characteristics of parallel sailing method?

By parallel sailing we mean **travelling along a parallel of latitude from one place to another**. This means that one would either be travelling directly westward or eastward [270° (T) or 090° (T)]. The distance along a parallel of latitude between two particular meridians decreases as the meridians converge towards […]