How much force does wind exert on a sail?
It is important to note that the wind speed is squared. This means that as the speed of the wind increases, the force it exerts on the sail also increases; but at a much higher rate! At 5 mph, the pressure would only be 0.064 pounds per square foot. At 10 mph, the pressure would rise to 0.256 pounds per square foot.
How do you calculate wind lift force?
Armed with pressure and drag data, you can find the wind load using the following formula: force = area x pressure x Cd. Using the example of a flat section of a structure, the area – or length x width – can be set to 1 square foot, resulting in a wind load of 1 x 25.6 x 2 = 51.2 psf for a 100-mph wind.
How is wind calculated?
Wind is caused by a difference in air pressure. … The speed of that wind can be measured using a tool called an anemometer. An anemometer looks like a weather vane, but instead of measuring which direction the wind is blowing with pointers, it has four cups so that it can more accurately measure wind speed.
What is the formula of sail?
It is the vector sum of true wind velocity and the apparent wind component resulting from boat velocity (VA = -VB + VT). In nautical terminology, wind speeds are normally expressed in knots and wind angles in degrees. The craft’s point of sail affects its velocity (VB) for a given true wind velocity (VT).
Can you sail faster than wind?
Yes, although it sounds implausible. With the wind blowing from behind and sails perpendicular to the wind, a boat accelerates. The wind speed on the sail is the difference between the vessel’s forward speed and that of the wind. … So, with clever streamlined hull designs a boat can sail faster than the wind.
How much power does a sail generate?
The solar panels in the mainsail are of sufficient size to generate an average of 1,000 watts of power, and the boat has a further 1,000 watts of solar panels. This is sufficient to drive it at four knots under power during daylight hours without taking any charge from the batteries.
What type of force is wind?
In summary, the wind is controlled by the pressure gradient force (differences in barometric pressure), the Coriolis Force and friction. Wind speed is primarily dictated by the pressure gradient force, while all three controllers combine to guide the wind’s direction.
How do you convert wind speed to pressure?
Wind pressure is given by the equation P = 0.00256 x V2, where V is the speed of the wind in miles per hour (mph). The unit for wind pressure is pounds per square foot (psf). For example, if the wind speed is 70 mph, the wind pressure is 0.00256 x 702 = 12.5 psf.
How much weight can 100 mph wind lift?
A 50 mph wind will apply 5 to 7 pounds of force per square foot, but this increases exponentially as winds get stronger. At 100 mph, that figure jumps from 20 to 28 pounds of pressure per square foot, and at 130 mph, 34 to 47 pounds per square foot of pressure are applied.
What is normal wind speed?
Beaufort Wind Scale
|0 — Calm||less than 1 mph (0 m/s)|
|3 — Gentle breeze||8 – 12 mph 3.5-5 m/s|
|4 — Moderate breeze||13 – 18 mph 5.5-8 m/s|
|5 — Fresh breeze||19 – 24 mph 8.5-10.5 m/s|
|6 — Strong breeze||25 – 31 mph 11-13.5 m/s|
What is basic wind speed?
Per definition by ASCE 7-16 & ASCE 7-10, Section 26.2 is defined as: BASIC WIND SPEED (V): Three-second gust speed at 33ft above the ground in Exposure C (see Exposure Categories) as determined in accordance with ASCE 7-16 (10) Section 26.5. … Basic wind speed is typically reported in ultimate load (Vult).